The 26th edition of the United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP26, will be held in Glasgow, Scotland in November 2020. The pre-COP will take place in Milan, Italy.
What is the Kyoto Protocol
The Kyoto Protocol, signed in 1997 and which entered into force in 2005, is the global agreement on climate that binds industrialised countries to limiting their CO2 emissions.
The Kyoto Protocol is the first international agreement to mandate reductions in gas emissions that caused the greenhouse effect, climate change and global warming.
It is based on the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) treaty, signed in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 during the famous Earth Summit. During the 1997 Kyoto Conference, in Japan, a protocol was adopted that establishes the times and procedures to put into effect the treaty’s climate change goals: the Kyoto Protocol.
Here are its key points:
- Industrialised nations (the Annex I countries) were mandated to reduce their greenhouse-gas emissions of at least 5% from 2008 to 2012 as compared to 1990.
- Said countries have to adopt projects for the protection of woods, forests and farmlands, that absorb carbon dioxide and are therefore called “carbon sinks”. If these countries help developing countries limiting their polluting emissions by exporting green technologies, they are awarded ‘carbon credits’. Finally, all Annex I countries are required to assess through a national system their gas emissions and offset them through a mechanism that is agreed by all parties.
- The Annex I parties will have to pay enormous financial penalties if they don’t comply with the commitments, while the agreement for developing countries is more flexible.
The protocol became law in November 2004, when the Russian parliament led by Vladimir Putin translated into law what had been decided on 30th September of the same year. The protocol entered into force after 90 days, on February 2005.
In 2001 the US withdrew their commitment, declaring that the protocol would have damaged their economy and foster the developing countries’ one. Australia, after initial refusal to ratify the protocol, in 2007 adhered to it while China is still an associate party.
Her are the greenhouse gases whose emissions should be limited: – Carbon dioxide – CO2 – Methane (CH4) – Nitrogen oxide (N2O) – Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) – Perfluorocarbons (PFC) – Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Scientists refer to these gases as “CO2 equivalents” for their ability to cause climate change (LifeGate’s project Zero Impact® complied with the Kyoto Protocol).
Thanks to activists, the voice of the world’s peoples resounded through the COP25 like an alarm bell. Governments didn’t reach the results they demanded, but their cries and messages were stronger than ever, reaching even those who weren’t in Madrid.
Climate change poses a risk for millions. However, women are the most vulnerable to its negative consequences: a few simple considerations by the Italian Climate Network help us perceive the global implications of this.
The COP25 ended two days late and with very few steps ahead made. Climate negotiations in 2020 will be an uphill battle as political will clearly seems to be lacking, once again.
The last ten years have been the most “exceptional” and hottest decade ever, with extreme weather hitting people and ecosystems harder and more frequently. 2019 is also on course to becoming the second or third hottest year since records began.
Unite Behind the Science: this was the title of the conference held at the COP25 on 10 December. Greta Thunberg’s presence filled the arena, but this time it was scientists’ turn to speak.
25,000 delegates meet for the COP25 from 2 to 13 December. What can we hope this UN climate change conference, whose venue was changed from Santiago de Chile to Madrid, will achieve?
100 eminent people from all over the world, including Vandana Shiva, Naomi Klein and Noam Chomsky, have signed an open letter after the disappointing results of the COP24. A call-to-arms for climate against world leaders’ indifference.
The outcome of the COP24 in Katowice left many unsatisfied. Greta Thunberg, a young Swedish environmental activist, gave a harsh, heartfelt speech addressing world leaders.